Wednesday, April 30, 2014

Last Day for Entries: TribeMapper Report Give-Away

As part of the DNA Day celebration, we are giving away five (5) TribeMapper Reports.

Tonight, at midnight EST, the contest will be closed.  Tomorrow, May 1st, I will announce the winners.

TribeMapper for the House of Normandy
Haplogroup R-L11*
Haplogroup I-L22 Flow into British Isles
Haplogroup G-Z725

For more details on the content of the report see our website.

Contest Terms & Conditions:

You must have completed at least a 37 marker Y-DNA (paternal line) test.  The results of your Report can be used for research, as the basis for an article or for the promotion of OriginsDNA.com.  Your supplied DNA results will not be disclosed, sold or otherwise transferred.

To enter the contest, please send an email to TribeMapper@OriginsDNA.com.  In the email, provide the full name of the Y-DNA donor, haplogroup (if known) and your Y-DNA marker results.

Good Luck!

Tuesday, April 29, 2014

Exploring Rollo's Roots: DNA Leads the Way


   It’s been nearly a year since I wrote about William the Conqueror’s DNA.  Based on a study of men with surnames historically associated with William and their corresponding Y-DNA, I concluded that I identified the genetic signature of the first Norman King of England.  Now it’s time to get back to William and more specifically his 3rd great grandfather, Rollo.  To be honest, the 37 marker Y-DNA haplotype that I published is really connected to Richard the Fearless, William’s great grandfather.  Genealogically, the surnames in the study trace back to Richard.  As long as there was no hanky-panky, William the Conqueror has the same Y-DNA as Richard.  What that also means is that Richard has the same Y-DNA as his grandfather, Rollo.

   Based on the work done in my previous paper, the following haplotype is that of William the Conqueror (and Richard the Fearless)-


DYS393
DYS390
DYS19
DYS391
DYS385a
DYS385b
DYS426
DYS388
DYS439
DYS389i
DYS392
DYS389ii
13
24
14
11
11
14
12
12
12
13
13
29

DYS458
DYS459a
DYS459b
DYS455
DYS454
DYS447
DYS437
DYS448
DYS449
DYS464a
DYS464b
DYS464c
DYS464d
17
9
10
11
11
25
15
19
29
15
15
17
17

DYS460
Y-GATA-H4
YCAIIa
YCAIIb
DYS456
DYS607
DYS576
DYS570
CDYa
CDYb
DYS442
DYS438
11
11
19
23
15
15
17
17
36
37
12
12


   There is an assumption, inherent in genetic genealogy, that there weren’t any non-paternal events between the generations that separate Rollo and William and that this haplotype is that of Rollo as well.  One of the goals for this Rollo study is to get more accurate with his haplotype by narrowing the dataset to only those records with 67 markers.  The second goal is to determine Rollo’s haplogroup R SNP.  The best I was able to determine for William was R-P312, which is a fairly high level SNP.  My third goal is to determine Rollo’s origin using my TribeMapper analysis.  Whether Rollo is Danish or Norwegian has been disputed for hundreds of years.

   I picked up where I left off with William.  There were 152 Y-DNA records that made it into the William the Conqueror Modal Haplotype (WCMH).  For each of these records a 67 marker test result and SNP testing result were added to the analysis, where the data was available.  I threw out any record that didn’t have enough data and retained the ones that grouped into a single SNP of R-DF13 (just downstream of R-L21).  Based on these final 25 records, I have identified the 67 marker Rollo Norman Modal Haplotype (RNMH) as follows:

DYS393
DYS390
DYS19
DYS391
DYS385a
DYS385b
DYS426
DYS388
DYS439
DYS389i
DYS392
DYS389ii
13
24
14
11
11
14
12
12
12
13
13
29

DYS458
DYS459a
DYS459b
DYS455
DYS454
DYS447
DYS437
DYS448
DYS449
DYS464a
DYS464b
DYS464c
DYS464d
17
9
10
11
11
25
15
19
29
15
15
17
17

DYS460
Y-GATA-H4
YCAIIa
YCAIIb
DYS456
DYS607
DYS576
DYS570
CDYa
CDYb
DYS442
DYS438
11
11
19
23
15
15
17
17
36
37
12
12

DYS531
DYS578
DYF395S1a
DYF395S1b
DYS590
DYS537
DYS641
DYS472
DYF406S1
DYS511
DYS425
DYS413a
DYS413b
11
9
15
16
8
10
10
8
10
10
12
23
23

DYS557
DYS594
DYS436
DYS490
DYS534
DYS450
DYS444
DYS481
DYS520
DYS446
DYS617
DYS568
16
10
12
12
16
8
12
22
20
13
12
11

DYS487
DYS572
DYS640
DYS492
DYS565
13
11
11
12
12

Based on this modal haplotype and the associated SNP, a broader collection of genetic cousin records were identified to be used with my new TribeMapper analysis (Biogeographical Multilateration).




   This map shows the geographic distribution of Rollo’s cousins.  The large number of points along the coast of Normandy is a good sign.  If the majority of points were in Eastern Europe, I would have to revisit my whole hypothesis about William the Conqueror.  It is best not to try to interpret any relationships until we look at them through the lens of a phylogenetic tree.



   The TribeMapper analysis takes into consideration the mapped location, the tree node connections and the time between common ancestors.  The time is converted to distance based on the demic diffusion migration rate.  The distance is plotted to ‘triangulate’ the geographic location of each common ancestor.  This is a process called multilateration.

   The earliest documented origins for Rollo come from Dudo of Saint-Quentin in 1015 and William of Jumi├Ęges in 1060.  Both ‘histories’ were commissioned by the House of Normandy and attribute a Danish origin to Rollo.  Commissioned biographies can border on mythology.   The Norwegian Orkneyinga Saga, from the 13th century, gives Rollo a Norwegian origin. 

   I’ve run the analysis with Rollo’s record as an unknown location.  TribeMapper allows us to back into the location for any unknown point.  What we get is a highly constrained location for Rollo’s ancestor, in the middle of Denmark.  The data then shows that Rollo may have lived within 226 km of that paternal ancestor.  The red circle illustrates the range for Rollo.  This covers the majority of Denmark.  The data also shows that Rollo’s ancestors, going back at least 12 generations were also in Denmark.



   We can give the Norwegians some credit also.  The ancestors of Rollo’s ancestors were Nowegian, with an origin on the west coast of Norway.  Rollo’s ancestors were responsible for multiple branches of migration into Europe.  This includes a back migration into Norway that then went on to invade Scotland.



   This was accomplished with small sample of 65 records for simplification.  Much larger data sets could determine the genetic flow in a greater geographic and chronologic view.  Additional records within the same SNP grouping could result in a more accurate origin for Rollo.  Records that are genetically upstream from the SNP and STR group used, may identify the nomadic migrations prior to the Western Norway settlement.


   I’ve run this simulation multiple times, getting the same results.  I’m comfortable calling Rollo – “The Dane”.

Reference:

Maglio, MR (2014) Biogeographical Origins and Y-chromosome Signature for the House of Normandy  (Link)